Federalization of Agriculture Sector: Restructuring and Service Delivery in Nepal
Keywords:Federal system, function, institutions, local governments, three tiers of the government, policies
The research examines the current issues and challenges of sectoral restructuring and assesses local governments' performance in agricultural service delivery at the local level under the federal system in Nepal. This study was conducted using a mixed method during 2019-2021 in three local governments at the local, Karnali Province, and federal levels. Qualitative methods such as KIIs, FGDs and field observations were used to analyze the issues and gaps in functions, institutions and policies in the agriculture sector under the federal system. Whilst qualitative methods and an empirical survey among 300 farming households were conducted to assess local governments' performance in agricultural service provisions. The qualitative data were analyzed using the thematic analysis method, and the quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as frequency and percentage. Findings revealed that functional overlap, duplication and lack of coordination between the three tiers of the government as major issues in sectoral restructuring. Farming household surveys revealed that local governments are effective in the timely delivery of agricultural services. However, farmers indicated their lower level of agreement on the capacity of the local staff, policies, institutional mechanisms, participatory process in planning and financial resource allocation for agricultural services. The performance of these three local governments on agricultural service delivery was affected by leadership priority and commitment, local policies, local staff capacity, resource allocation and external support. Overlapping and duplication in service delivery roles, weak local capacity, higher conditionality of intergovernmental sectoral fiscal transfer and less priority of local governments in financial resource prioritization are current issues and gaps in agricultural service delivery. The findings suggest the demarcation of the roles and responsibilities between the three tiers of the government, strengthening local capacities and revisiting local governments' institutional arrangement for effective agricultural service delivery under the federal system.
Adhikari, R. (2020). The State of Constitution Implementation and Federalism in Nepal. In Rawal, D. K., & Guragain, R. (Eds.), Nepal's Constitution and Federalism Vision and Implementation (pp. 10-23). National Forum of Parliamentarians on Population and Development, Nepal.
ADS. (2015). Agriculture Development Strategy (2015-2035). Part 1 and Part 2, Singhadarbar, Kathmandu, Nepal. Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock Development, Government of Nepal.
Agranoff, R., & Radin, B. (2014). Deil Wright’s overlapping model of intergovernmental relations: the basis for contemporary intergovernmental relationships. The Journal of Federalism, 45(1), 139-159.
Belaka Municipality. (2018-2021). Annual Policy and Programme (FY 2018/019, 2019/020, 2020/021, 2021/022). Office of Belaka Municipality, Udayapur, Province one, Nepal.
Benjamin, S. O. (2004). Federal state and state relations in Nigeria: A case study of Lagos state. In Egwaikhide, F. O., Aiyede, E. R. , Benjamin, S.O., Dlkwa, H. D. & Ikelegbe, A. Intergovernmental relations. Ibadan.
Benson, D., & Jordan, A. (Eds.), (2015). Environmental policy: Protection and regulation. In International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences (pp. 778-783). Elsevier.
Bishwakarma, B.K., Upreti, B.R., Devkota, D., & Devkota, N. R. (2020). Impacts of Sectoral Restructuring on Agricultural Service Delivery in Nepal. International Journal of Agriculture Education and Extension, 6(2), 392-404.
Bishwakarma, B.K., Upreti, B.R., Devkota, D., & Devkota, N.R. (2021). Agricultural Functions, Institutions and Policies in the Context of Sectoral Restructuring in Nepal. International Journal of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development Studies, 8(2), 12-28. https://doi.org/10.37745/ijaerds.15
Bishwakarma, B.K., Upreti, B.R., Devkota, D., & Devkota, N.R. (2022). Farmers Response on Agricultural Service Delivery in New Federal System of Nepal. International Journal of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development Studies, 9(1), 1-18. https://doi.org/10.37745/ijaerds.15
Boadway, R. (2006). The principles and practice of federalism: Lessons for the EU. Swedish Economic Policy Review 13, 9-62.
Boddewyn, J. (Ed.), (2015). Advertising, control of. International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences (pp. 201-207). Elsevier
Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative research in psychology, 3(2), 77-101. DOI: 10.1191/1478088706qp063oa
Burke, B. F. (2014). Understanding intergovernmental relations, twenty-five years hence. State and Local Government Review, 46(1), 63-76.
Chiamogu, A. P., Onwughalu, V. C., & Chiamogu, U. P. (2012). Politics of inter-governmental relations in Nigeria: An appraisal of current issues. International Journal of Asian Social Science, 2(11), 1892-1905.
Constitution of Nepal. (2015). Constitution of Nepal. Kathmandu, Nepal: Government of Nepal, Nepal Law Commission.
Conyers, D. (2007). Decentralisation and Service Delivery: Lessons from Sub-Saharan Africa. IDS Bulletin, 38(1), 18-32
Devkota, K.L. (2020, July). Intergovernmental fiscal relations in a federal Nepal. International Center for Public Policy Working Paper 20-13. International Center for Public Policy Andrew Young School of Policy Studies Georgia State University Atlanta.
DRCN. (2018, August). Findings on Functioning of Local and Provincial Governments in Nepal. Kumaripati Lalitpur: Democracy Resource Center Nepal.
DRCN. (2019, April). Functioning of Local and Provincial Governments in Nepal. Kumaripati Lalitpur: Democracy Resource Center Nepal.
DRCN. (2020, October). The Interrelationship between Three Levels of Governments in Nepal’s Federal Structure, A Study Report. Democracy Resource Center Nepal.
Faguet, J. P. (2014). Decentralization and Governance. World Development. 53(January), 2-13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2013.01.002
FIARCC. (2016). Report on: unbundling of list of exclusive and concurrent powers of the Federation, the State (Province) and the Local Level provisioned in the Schedule 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 of the Constitution of Nepal. Kathmandu Nepal: Federalism Implementation and Administration Restructuring Coordination Committee.
GoN. (2017). Inter-governmental Fiscal Management Act. Government of Nepal, Nepal Law Commission. www.lawcommission.gov.np
GoN. (2018). Food Right and Food Sovereignty Act 2018. Government of Nepal, Nepal Law Commission. www.lawcommission.gov.np
HFARC. (2017). Report of High level Federal Administrative Restructuring Committee. Kathmandu: High level Federal Administrative Restructuring Committee, Sighadarbar.
Ikeanyibe, O. M., Chukwu, P. C., & Ibietan, J. (2019). Model and determinants of state-local governments’ relations in Nigeria. Revista de Administração Pública, 53(6), 1040-1066. https://doi.org/10.1590/0034-761220180068x
International Alert & Saferworld. (2020). Status and process of law-making in local governments: Reflections from two provinces. International Alert & Saferworld.
Karnali Province Government. (2019-2021). Annual Policy and Programme (FY 2019/020, 2020/021 & 2021/022). Karnali Province Government, Office of the Chief Minister and Council of Minister.
Karnali Province Government. (2019a). Karnali Province Organic Agriculture Act 2019. Karnali Province Government, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Law.
Karnali Province Planning Commission. (2019b). Karnali Province First Five Year Periodic Plan (FY 2019/20 to FY 2025/26). Karnali Province Government, Karnali Province Planning Commission.
Kyle, J., & Resnick, D. (2016). Nepal’s 2015 Federal constitution implications for the governance of the agricultural sector. International Food Policy Research Institute. http://ebrary.ifpri.org/cdm/ref/collection/p15738coll2/id/131009
LGOA. (2017). Local Government Operation Act 2074. Government of Nepal, Nepal Law Commission. www.lawcommission.org.np
MoALD. (2021a). Annual Progress Report (FY 2020/21. Government of Nepal, Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock Development, Monitoring and Evaluation Section,
MoALD. (2021b). Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock Development, Government of Nepal. Retrieved from: https://www.moald.gov.np/ministry-info
MoEAP. (2019-2021). Annual Development Programme (FY 2019/20, 2020/21, 2021/22). Karnali Province Government, Ministry of Economic Affairs and Planning.
MoF. (2017-2021). Red Books. Government of Nepal, Ministry of Finance.
MoLMAC. (2019). Organic Agriculture Related Acts and Programme Implementation Guidelines Collection, 2019. Karnali Province Government, Ministry of Land Management Agriculture and Cooperative.
MoLMAC. (2020). Organogram of Karnali Province Ministry of Land Management Agriculture and Cooperative. https://molmac.karnali.gov.np/organization
Musikot Municipality. (2018-2021). Annual Policy and Programme (FY 2018/019, 2019/020, 2020/021, 2021/022). Office of Musikot Municipality, Rukum West, Karnali Province, Nepal.
NPC. (2016). Three Year Interim Plan (2016/017-2018/019). Government of Nepal, National Planning Commission.
NPC. (2017-2021). Annual Development Programme (FY 2017/018, 2018/019, 2019/020, 2020/021 & 2021/022). Government of Nepal, National Planning Commission.
NPC. (2020). Fifteenth Periodic Plan (FY 2019/20-2023/2024). Government of Nepal, National Planning Commission.
Obi, E. A. (2019). The theory, practice and current trends in federalism. Journal of Social Service and Welfare, 1(1), 10-20.
Paudyal, L. M. (2021). Policymaking on governance and service delivery in Nepal. Policy Research Institute.
Phillimore, J. (2013). Understanding intergovernmental relations: key features and trends. Australian Journal of Public Administration, 72(3), 228-238. Doi:10.1111/1467-8500.12025
Rakodi, C. (2002). Influence and accountability: citizens voices, responsiveness and accountability in service delivery. One world action seminar report. One World Action.
Rijal, M. R., & Upreti, B. R. (2022). Reflecting on Public Policy Landscape in Nepal. [PRI Publication No. 044]. Kathmandu: Policy Research Institute.
Shrestha, R. (2019). Governance and institutional risks and challenges in Nepal. World Bank.
Simta Rural Municipality. (2018-2021). Annual Policy and Programme (FY 2018/019, 2019/020, 2020/021, 2021/022). Office of Simta Rural Municipality, Karnali Province, Nepal.
Subedi, S. (2020). Implementation of Federalism and Management of Human Resources in Nepal. In D. K. Rawal, & R. Guragain, (Eds.), Nepal's Constitution and Federalism Vision and Implementation (pp. 46-58). National Forum of Parliamentarians on Population and Development, Nepal.
Subedi, T. B., Subedi, R., & Sapkota, B. R. (2019). Agriculture extension system in Nepal: context of federal restructuring. Doubling the Income of SAARC Countries: Extension Strategies and Approaches (pp. 163-178). Nepal Agricultural Extension Association (NAEA) Kathmandu and Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock Development Agriculture Information and Training Center (AITC) Lalitpur.
Upreti, B. R. (2016, May 24). Federalism in Nepal-Major Discourses and Key Challenges. White-House Graduate School of Management. https://doi.org10.13140/RG.2.1.1841.8807
Upreti, B. R., Töpperwien, N., & Heiniger, M. (2009). Peace process and federalism in Nepal: Experiences, reflections and learning. NCCR North-South.
Warmbrod, J. R. (2014). Reporting and interpreting scores derived from Likert-type scales. Journal of Agricultural Education, 55(5), 30-47. Doi: 10.5032/jae.2014.05030
World Bank Group, & UNP. (2019). Capacity needs assessment for the transition to federalism. Prepared by the International Center for Public Policy in the Andrew Young School of Policy Studies at Georgia State University.
World Bank. (2001). Decentralization and governance: does decentralization improve public service delivery? Poverty reduction and economic management note No.55. World Bank.
Wright, D. S. (1988). Understanding intergovernmental relations. Books/Cole publishing Company.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Bishnu Kumar Bishwakarma
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.