Nepal Public Policy Review Policy Research Institute en-US Nepal Public Policy Review 2795-1901 Editorial: Stepping into the first public policy research journal Bishnu Raj Upreti Copyright (c) 2021 Bishnu Raj Upreti 2021-09-18 2021-09-18 1 10.3126/nppr.v1i1.43415 Challenges to Diplomatic Efforts in Resolving Nepal-India Border Problems in the Himalayas: A Foreign Policy Analysis (FPA) <p>The Constitutional Provision on Nepal’s Foreign Policy has emphasized securing Nepal’s international borders. Nepal’s Foreign Policy-2077 also demands Nepal’s border to be kept intact by protecting international border points and resolving boundary issues via the means of peaceful diplomatic negotiations and dialogues, based on historic documents, treaties, agreements, facts and evidence. Despite the constitutional provision and foreign policy directives, Nepal’s border problems with its Southern neighbour remain unresolved. Despite having friendly bilateral relations, and cross-border civilizational linkages, Nepal-India relations are not free from border problems. Even during the pandemic, when both countries closed their borders to contain the spread of the coronavirus, they resorted to border confrontations taking the bilateral relations into the low ebb. This study examines the border problems between Nepal and India during the time of COVID-19 with a focus on Lipulekh and Limpiyadhura. Largely concentrated on identifying assorted challenges in resolving Nepal-India border problems, when Nepal faced India with its new map against the latter's new route to Mansarovar, Nepal’s self-help that is limited to diplomatic talks with India has been elaborated along with Indian and Chinese responses to Nepal’s new map and India’s opening of a new route to Mansarovar, respectively. By using Foreign Policy Analysis (FPA) as a tool, this article discusses why diplomatic negotiations haven’t found a headway in the Nepal-India context, despite Nepal's repeated calls. It is a qualitative study that uses data from both primary and secondary sources that include government reports, historical documents, archives, statistics, and treaties. Media sources have also been reviewed to understand various issues of Nepal’s border problems with India. After the coding and familiarisation of the data, analysis and interpretation were done. Highlighting the interconnectedness of the Himalayan geopolitics and India’s securitization of the Himalayan frontier, the article concludes that Nepal’s diplomatic initiative on resolving the border problem has been impacted by power condensation in the Himalaya region and India’s lack of interest.</p> Gaurav Bhattarai Copyright (c) 2021 Gaurav Bhattarai 2021-09-18 2021-09-18 1 1 30 10.3126/nppr.v1i1.43418 Impact of Remittances on Economic Growth in Nepal <p>Remittances have become a significant source of foreign exchange as well as funds for small business start-ups and expansion and consumption spending of recipient households in developing countries. Accordingly, it is expected that remittances would contribute to economic development. Notwithstanding, there is yet no consensus on the impact of remittances on economic growth. This paper focuses on the impact of remittances on economic growth in Nepal, a small Asian country where remittances were 31% of GDP in 2016. Using data from the World Bank and other sources, the study found that remittances does not significantly impact economic growth. The study also found that democratic form of governance as measured by a dummy variable had a significant and positive impact on economic growth alongside capital formation and exports. Based on additional tests using cointegration and regression analysis, the paper found that there is a possibility that remittances negatively impact economic growth in the long run.</p> Prasiddha Shakya George P. Gonpu Copyright (c) 2021 Prasiddha Shakya, George P. Gonpu 2021-09-18 2021-09-18 1 31 47 10.3126/nppr.v1i1.43419 Household transitions to clean energy from traditional biomass in Nepal: Challenges and opportunities <p>In recent years, the Nepal government has recognized and prioritized several clean energy initiatives in its national plans and policies. Despite this, more than two-thirds of households still rely on traditional biomass, as their primary source of energy, for cooking and heating, making the household fuelwood consumption per person in Nepal among the highest in the world. However, why households’ transitions to clean energy for cooking is slow has been poorly understood. Using energy-specific information from the World Bank’s Multi-Tier Framework (MTF) survey and the Nepal government’s Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS), the cooking and heating energy consumption situation of households across the provinces by rural and urban areas is analyzed briefly. Also, a simple levelized cost of cooking is estimated using different fuel-technology combinations. The main findings of this paper are: limited availability, unreliable supply and high costs are hindering households’ transitions to clean energy from traditional biomass; the combination of fuelwood, liquified petroleum gas and other clean energy sources (multiple fuel stacking) are common within the same household; and, the use of biogas, and to some extent, solar power, for cooking is limited to scale and geographical location. It is expected that electricity will be the most economic and common primary clean cooking energy option for households in the future provided that the government has the policy to address the reliability concerns of electricity and that it is affordable for lowincome households.</p> Sunil Malla Copyright (c) 2021 Sunil Malla 2021-09-18 2021-09-18 1 48 67 10.3126/nppr.v1i1.43420 Nepal’s growing dependency on food imports: A threat to national sovereignty and ways forward <p>Nepal's food imports are growing at an alarming rate. Recent reports suggest a 65% jump in the imports of the key agricultural products between 2015 to 2020. It signals not only the growing dependency trends but also raises serious questions about the future of the agricultural sector in the country--a potential threat to national security and sovereignty. While the topic receives regular media coverage, rarely examined are the historical contexts and the socio-economic, (geo)-political, and cultural drivers of the growing dependency on food imports. Using a political economy approach, we take a systematic look at the food production and import trajectories along with a set of historically important internal and external factors affecting Nepal's food systems. The main objective of this paper is to examine how Nepal became a net food importer in recent decades and discuss some potential ways forward. We argue that while the sharp rise in food imports is unprecedented for Nepal's historically agriculture-based economy, it is hardly surprising in a globalized world; it is emblematic of the global decline of subsistence agriculture in the face of the wider market economy. We conclude that the changes in Nepal's food production and import trajectories are largely influenced by four key interconnected endogenous and exogenous drivers: 1) the politics of modernization and economic growth affecting the agriculture and food systems, 2) regional geopolitics and increasing economic/market dependence, 3) ineffective government policies on food production and imports, and 4) political instability and insurgency forcing migration and off-farm incomes.</p> Jagannath Adhikari Milan Shrestha Dinesh Paudel Copyright (c) 2021 Jagannath Adhikari, Milan Shrestha, Dinesh Paudel 2021-09-18 2021-09-18 1 68 86 10.3126/nppr.v1i1.43429 National Statistical Management System: Opportunities, Challenges and Future Steps <p>Globally, countries adopt either centralized or decentralized statistical management system. With over 60 years of history, Nepal has been practicing decentralized statistical management system where various government agencies alongside non-government and private agencies manage statistics based on their needs and requirements. Statistics Act 1958 set the foundation for statistical management system, that is in operational stage as of 2021. This paper sets an objective of reviewing the legal instruments associated with statistical management system and explores the opportunities and challenges of integrated statistical management system. Paper adopts systematic literature review method to search, sort and filter the relevant literature associated with opportunities and challenges of statistical management systems and/or practices. The adoption of statistical management system among countries were found to be varied (centralized/decentralized) based on the countries’ needs, interests, capacity to set-up infrastructures. Hence the paper recommends updating the statistics related legal instruments and emphasizes the establishment of single institution. Based on which, country can adopt the principle and modality of either centralized or integrated statistical management system based on its needs and interests. After identifying the complexity, privacy, confidentiality, safety and security associated with integrated statistical management system, the paper suggests laying out a foundational framework for a strong and effective system. Afterwards possible concerns could be addressed through updated statistical acts and rules.</p> Manish Thapa Copyright (c) 2021 Manish Thapa 2021-09-18 2021-09-18 1 87 108 10.3126/nppr.v1i1.43437 Post Disaster Agricultural Strategies for Food Sufficiency and Economic Resilience: Special Focus on Gorkha, Nepal in Relation to Barpak Earthquake, 2015 <p>Barpak earthquake 2015 (7.8 Richter scale) killed 8,800 people, injured thousands and made nearly 3.5 million homeless. It created food shortage and hardship on livelihood because of damaged agricultural infrastructures, loss of stored food, feed, seed, livestock and reduced crop yield. This research aims to find out post the disaster situation of food availability, consumption and food balance in Gorkha district, as well as to assure livelihoods support and economic resilience. Relevant literature was reviewed, and field verification and interactions were organized in different rural municipalities/municipalities in the year 2019. The study revealed that Gorkha has a high agricultural potential with a surplus production of cereals (49.7%), fruits (6.2%) and spices (175.7%). However, the surplus on cereals was only in Palungtar, Ajirkot, Arughat, Siranchok, Barpak Sulikot, Dharche and Gorkha municipalities (7491.3, 6000.1, 5946.6, 3424.9, 2699.8, 1255.2 and 707.3 t/year, respectively), but Chun Numbri, Bhimsen, Gandaki and Sahid Lakhan municipalities were in a deficit of 101, 661, 333 and 1799 t/year respectively. Moreover, the district was producing a negligible amount of fish, oilseed, ghee (animal) and honey but was in deficit in the production of vegetables (31.5%), potato (30.0%), milk (29.6%), egg (65.0%), meat (54.0%) and pulses (53.0%). In fact, the food surplus and deficit in different commodities varied in different municipalities with different degrees. It is thus suggested to adopt a municipality-wise, commercial-focused agriculture programme that includes potato/seed production in Chun Numbri (high hill), medicinal herbs in Dharche, maize in Barpak Sulikot, intercropping agroforestry of utis (Alnus nepalensis), timur (Zanthoxylum armatum), white sandalwood (Santalum album) with cardamom/tea/coffee in Ajirkot, goat production in Siranchok and Arughat, avocado in Bhimsen, citrus in Sahid Lakhan, organic vegetables in Gandaki and Gorkha and milk/fruit production in Palungtar. Finally, it is recommended to integrate all the development programmes, farmers’ welfare programmes, agro-tourism and resources to give synergy on food security and economic resilience of the earthquake victims in Gorkha district.</p> Suroj Pokhrel Copyright (c) 2021 Suroj Pokhrel 2021-09-18 2021-09-18 1 109 137 10.3126/nppr.v1i1.43438 Trilateral Engagement in Nepalese Geopolitics: Soft Power Approach in Nepal's Foreign Policy <p>The contemporary South Asian geopolitics in general and Nepalese geopolitics, in particular, is a crucial factor to analyze trilateral engagement, and their affairs in Nepal. Geopolitics is one of the major factors of shaping and reshaping bilateral and multilateral relations. It is influenced by the actions and reactions of geopolitical players. They sometimes push their actions broadly to achieve their national and global interests, and sometimes even narrow down their actions. But, whatever their actions, their national and global interests continue to grow. China, India and the USA have been dealing, in one way or the other, to widen, broaden and defend their national and regional interests. Dealing of three super and great powers in Nepal have dealt based on the changing geopolitics which greatly implicates Nepalese domestic affairs and foreign policy. This paper mainly assesses the engagement of the USA, China, and India in Nepal, and how their power play implicates Nepal's foreign policies. It aims to explore Nepal’s way of moving forward in the context of the Belt and Road Initiatives (BRI), Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC), and the newly emerged China-Russia security dialogue platform. The paper adapts interpretivism as the philosophical position and hence method is qualitative. It only focuses on geopolitics, BRI, MCC, and China-Russia security dialogue platform. The conclusion of the paper is that Nepal’s foreign policy should be based on soft power discourse to eliminate the issues of any kind of regional and global security alliance with super and great powers.</p> Hari Prakash Chand Copyright (c) 2021 Hari Prakash Chand 2021-09-18 2021-09-18 1 138 156 10.3126/nppr.v1i1.43439 Local Government’s Tax Practices From A Cooperative Federalism Perspective <p>This study analyses intergovernmental revenue policies and its practices in Nepal, specifically focusing on the role of local governments (LGs) in tax administration. Both qualitative and quantitative data were used in this study that concluded LGs are gradually institutionalising internal revenue bases, and rates at the local level. The constitution 2015 has provisioned that the local governments can autonomously execute various functions including legislative, administrative, financial management, tax administration and so on. Nonetheless, imperfect experience, inadequate technical skills, limited legal and procedural grounds, and weak institutional capacity, LGs are collecting tax. Result shows tax enforcement process has been implemented with limited consultation with the taxpayers and minimal coordination with the provincial and federal government. This has created number of criticisms to the LGs about their unaccountability to the taxpaying citizens. Thus, some recommendations such as integration of technical management capacity with local, provincial, and federal level for efficient fiscal administration systems; and digitization and automation of taxation for intergovernmental cooperation have been provided for improving local economic and effective tax administration at the local level.</p> Raj Kumar Dhungana Keshav Kumar Acharya Copyright (c) 2021 Raj Kumar Dhungana, Keshav Kumar Acharya 2021-09-18 2021-09-18 1 157 178 10.3126/nppr.v1i1.43440 Reducing the plight of migrant workers affected by COVID-19 <p>Since the start of the pandemic one and a half years ago, a precarious economic crisis has developed in the country due to the fluctuation in remittance, which had once contributed to nearly one-third of the total GDP. In the initial phase of the pandemic, around 1.5 million migrant workers were expected to return home by losing jobs in major destinations – India, the Middle East and Malaysia – which have over one-fifth of the total migrant workers abroad. On this backdrop, this paper highlights the situation of the Nepali migrant people in the destination during the time of the COVID-19 crisis. The paper utilises existing literature collected through various sources and explores possible areas of intervention. It aims to unpack the impact of the pandemic on migrant workers, remittance flows and the livelihoods of the migrant workers and their family members. The paper concludes that the rate of return may further upsurge depending upon the situation of the spread of the pandemic. The impact of the virus is not limited to a national economy. It is felt by every individual who has lost their jobs, their hopes of getting involved in new jobs and is left unattended by state authorities. Those involved in the informal sectors, particularly the women and those from marginalised communities, are left in a state in which they cannot feed their families and pay their rent due to the effect of lockdowns. To reduce the impact of the pandemic on migrant workers, both the government and non-government development partners must involve in the early recovery work aimed at generating information on the impact of COVID 19 and concentrating on the immediate priorities of those impacted. The priorities should be set based on the current living condition, by utilising best practices available and undertaking measures made up of the capsule of identification, awareness, organisation, putting the victims first and uncompromised monitoring for possible areas of intervention in local communities. These strategies should aim for reintegration by adopting the principle of informed choice of the workers.</p> Padma Prasad Khatiwada Copyright (c) 2021 Padma Prasad Khatiwada 2021-09-18 2021-09-18 1 179 190 10.3126/nppr.v1i1.43441 Nepal’s Gender Policies: Achievements and Challenges <p>Nepal has experienced extraordinary political and social changes in the last 25 years. Since the Constituent Assembly (CA) election in 2008, progress has been noted in increasing women’s access to literacy, education, and healthcare services. Despite significant gender reforms in policies and strategies, Nepali women continue to experience discrimination and violence mainly because of their gender. Drawing upon six different cases – constitutional and international framework, participation of women, women peace and security, sexual and reproductive health rights, gender-responsive budget and citizenship law – this paper highlights some of the achievements and gaps in the area of gender reform policies and practices. Methodologically, the study adopts document review and personal reflections of authors as the main source of information. The paper concludes with some key recommendations to address existing challenges and gaps of these selected policies/strategies.</p> Bandana Rana Samiksha Koirala Copyright (c) 2021 Bandana Rana, Samiksha Koirala 2021-09-18 2021-09-18 1 191 200 10.3126/nppr.v1i1.43442 Information and Communication Technology Scenario of Nepal: Assessing Policy Environment and Challenges <p>Advances in Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) offer great opportunities for developing countries to stimulate economic growth. However, Nepal has not been able to harness the full potential of the ICTs and benefit from them to the extent possible because of the general absence of underlying fundamentals including policies and strategies aligned with the technological dynamism of the sector, to address ever evolving needs and fully capitalize on opportunities offered ICTs and digital technologies. To rise to the ICT challenge facing the country requires a thorough review of structural impediments to the transformative potential of ICTs and digital technologies, establishment of the policy environment that promotes innovative harnessing of these technologies by all actors, including the private sector, and a strategic orientation that factors in fast evolving technology landscape, where artificial intelligence, blockchain, analytics and Industry 4.0 are set to play defining roles going forward.</p> Manohar Kumar Bhattarai Copyright (c) 2021 Manohar Kumar Bhattarai 2021-09-18 2021-09-18 1 201 211 10.3126/nppr.v1i1.43443 Agricultural and Natural Resources Policies in Nepal: A Review of Formulation and Implementation Processes and Issues <p>The government of Nepal has made efforts to formulate and implement the agricultural sector policies since the 1960s. It has formulated dozens of policies and strategies in agriculture, forestry, agro-forestry, climate change, land use, poverty alleviation, irrigation, etc. Some of the policies seem to be targeted to specific groups and communities (poverty alleviation policy), to different sectors and commodities (forest, agriculture, poultry, coffee, etc.), and address international and national concerns and priorities (climate change policy, agrobiodiversity). This study aims to review the implementation of the policy provisions of major agricultural and natural resources policies, explore possible causes for it and suggest measures to effectively implement policy provisions in the future. We have reviewed seven agriculture policies for their provision and implementation and identified some common features and inadequacies. Our recommendations for policy reform include the practice of wider consideration, inter-policy coherence, sufficient institutional framework, periodic policy evaluation, improved accountability, and consideration for national Interest.</p> Ganesh R Joshi Binaya Joshi Copyright (c) 2021 Ganesh R Joshi, Binaya Joshi 2021-09-18 2021-09-18 1 212 227 10.3126/nppr.v1i1.43459 राजनीतिक वित्त व्यवस्थापनः निर्वाचन सुधारको अवसर <p>यो छोटो लेखमा राजनीतिक वित्तका बारेको सामान्य बुझाई र अर्थ, राजनीतिक वित्त व्यवस्थापनको क्रममा अन्तर्राष्ट्रिय र नेपालको अभ्यास, खास गरी निर्वाचनको क्रममा निर्वाचन गराउने निकाय, सरकार, सुरक्षा निकाय एवं दल वा उम्मेदवारबाट हुने खर्चको प्रवृत्ति; दल र निर्वाचनको खर्चका लागि हुने अपारदर्शी आम्दानीका स्रोत तथा खर्चले निम्त्याएका विकृति; यसको व्यवस्थापनका लागि भए–गरेका प्रयास तथा तिनबाट देखिएका चुनौती, आदि विषयका बारेमा चर्चा गरिनुका अतिरिक्त यसमा सुधारका लागि प्रणाली, प्रक्रिया, संरचना, व्यवस्थापन र क्षमता विस्तार लगायतका क्षेत्रसँग सम्बन्धित केही सुझावहरू प्रस्तुत गरिएको छ ।</p> <p><strong>Abstract (in English)</strong></p> <p>This short article appraises the general understanding and meaning of political finance and the international and Nepalese practice in the management of political finance, and assess the trends in expenditure incurred by election bodies, government, security agencies and parties or candidates during the election, and perversions caused by opaque sources of income and expenses of political parties and election expenses. It then assesses the efforts made to manage them and the challenges posed by them, and, based on that, suggests reforms in the system, process, structure, management, and capacity expansion for the management of political finance.</p> Bhoj Raj Pokharel Copyright (c) 2021 Bhoj Raj Pokharel 2021-09-18 2021-09-18 1 228 248 10.3126/nppr.v1i1.43502 सार्वजनिक वित्तीय व्यवस्थापन: वर्तमान अवस्था र भावी कार्यदिशा <p>राज्यले प्रभावकारी सेवा व्यवस्थापन र स्वच्छ राजस्व परिचालन एवम् जिम्मेवारीपूर्ण खर्च गर्नको निम्ति प्रभावकारी सार्वजनिक वित्तीय व्यवस्थापन महत्वपूर्ण हुन्छ । यस लेखको उद्देश्य वित्तीय व्यवस्थापनको संक्षिप्त विकासक्रम र वर्तमान अवस्थाको लेखाजोखा गर्दै सार्वजनिक वित्तीय व्यवस्थापनका उद्देश्य, सार्वजनिक वित्तीय व्यवस्थापन चक्र तथा नेपालमा देखिएका प्रमुख सवाल र चुनौतीको पहिचान गर्नु र भावी दिनमा अवलम्वन गर्नैपर्ने केही नीतिगत तथा कार्यगत पक्षमा सुझावहरू पेश गर्नु हो । सार्वजनिक वित्तीय व्यवस्थापनका दश वटा चुनौतीहरूको पहिचान गर्दै सुधारका लागि वास्तविक बजेट निर्माण, योजना र खर्च संरचनाबिच तार्किक सम्बन्ध, स्वचालित वित्तीय कारोबार, सूचना समावेश गर्ने खरिद प्रणाली, एकीकृत सार्वजनिक वित्तीय सूचना व्यवस्थापन प्रणाली, सम्पूर्ण बजेट प्रलेखीकरण प्रणाली, नतिजामूलक अनुगमन र कम्प्युटर–सहकृत लेखा परीक्षण, आदि सुझावहरू पेश गरिएका छन् ।</p> <p><strong>Abstract (in English)</strong></p> <p>Effective public financial management is important for effective service management, clean revenue mobilization, and responsible spending. The purpose of this article is to present a brief history of financial management and assessessment the current situation, and to identify the purpose of public financial management, the working of public financial management cycle, the major issues and challenges in Nepal, and to suggest some policy and action plan to be adopted in coming days. Identifying some ten challenges of the current public financial management, suggestion are offered which include practices and measures for actual budget, the logical relationship between planning and expenditure structure, automated financial transactions, procurement system that captures information, integrated financial information management system, whole-of-the-budget documentation system, result-based monitoring and computer-asisted accounting.</p> Gopi Nath Mainali Copyright (c) 2021 Nepal Public Policy Review 2021-09-18 2021-09-18 1 249 260 10.3126/nppr.v1i1.43504 राजनैतिक दल र राज्यको नीतिका विचको अन्तरसम्वन्धः समस्या, चुनौति र समाधानका उपायहरु <p>नेपालले हालसालै सामन्तवादी राजनीतिक प्रणालीबाट सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक प्रणालीमा फड्को मारेपछि राजनीतिक दलहरूको लागि राज्यका नीतिको प्रतिरोध गरेर होइन तिनलाई विस्तारित गरेर दलको उद्देश्य प्राप्त गर्ने अवसर र बाध्यता समेत सिर्जना भएको छ । दल र राज्यका नीतिहरूबिचको सामञ्जस्य स्थायीत्व र विकासको लागि अति महइभ्वपूर्ण हुन्छ । यो लेखको उद्देश्य नेपालमा राजनीतिक दलका नीति र राज्यका नीति बिच सामञ्जस्यपूर्ण अन्तर्सम्बन्धको आवश्यकता, समस्या, चुनौतीको लेखाजोखा तथा समस्या समाधानका उपायहरू निक्र्योल गर्नु हो । यो लेखमा सार्वजनिक नीतिका केही सैद्धान्तिक पृष्ठभूमिसहित नेपालको समकालीन राजनीतिक परिवर्तनको पृष्ठभूमिमा राज्यको नीति अभिव्यक्त हुने संविधान र ऐन तथा दलहरूको नीति अभिव्यक्त हुने घोषणापत्र र सत्ताभित्र र बाहिर रहँदाको व्यवहार लगायत पाटाहरूमा रहेको अन्तराल र अन्तरविरोधको विश्लेषण गरी तिनका कारक तत्वको विवेचना तथा समाधानका तार्किक उपाय सुझाइएको छ । नेपालमा राजनीतिक दल र राज्यका नीति बिच स्थिरता र राजनीतिक विश्वसनीयतामाथि नै प्रश्न खडा हुने तहको अन्तराल रहेको देखिएको छ भने यसको समाधानको लागि राजनीतिक हैसियतको परिपालना, संस्कारजन्य व्यवहारमा परिवर्तन र संरचनागत सुधार गर्ने लगायतका सुझावहरू दिइएको छ ।</p> <p><strong>Abstract (in English)</strong></p> <p>Nepal's recent leap from a feudal political system to a federal democratic system has created opportunities and compulsions for political parties to achieve their objectives by expanding and not resisting state policy. Harmony between party and state policies is crucial for stability and development. The purpose of this article is to assess the need, problems and challenges of the harmonious interrelationship between and policies of the state and the policies of political parties and suggest solutions to the problems. I have presented the theoretical context of public policies and the context of contemporary political changes in Nepal. I have analyzed the gap and contradiction between the policy of the state as expressed in the constitution and relevant Acts, and the policies of political parties as represented in their manifestos, and also that between the behaviour of political parties when in power and the behaviour when out of power, identified the factors, and suggested logical solution to the problems. It is found that there are serious gaps between the policies of political parties and that of the state to the extent that it is undermining the stability and political credibility. Acceptance and adherence to the legitimate political status, change in cultural practices and structural reforms are are among the suggested remedies of the problem.</p> Khimlal Devkota Copyright (c) 2021 Khimlal Devkota 2021-09-18 2021-09-18 1 261 273 10.3126/nppr.v1i1.43505