Government Framework for Agriculture Service Delivery at the Local Level in Nepal


  • Mahesh Jaishi Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science (IAAS)
  • Govinda Prasad Sharma Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock Development (MoALD)
  • Purna Bahadur Nepali Kathmandu University
  • Devendra Gauchan Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science (IAAS)
  • Ram Krishna Shrestha Department of Agriculture (DoA)
  • Krishna Prasad Timsina Nepal Agricultural Research Council (NARC)
  • Huma Neupane Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science (IAAS)



Agriculture service delivery, Clients, Local government framework, Municipality


This paper examines the policy, institutional and legal aspects of agriculture service delivery (ASD) of local government in federal Nepal. The aim of this study is to recommend an appropriate framework for improving ASD unit efficiency in delivering agricultural services to citizens. The paper seeks to answer the question of whether the ASD unit of municipalities facilitates a local government framework while discharging their agriculture services to the citizens. To achieve this, both primary and secondary data were used. Primary data were collected through structured interviews of agriculture service takers using stratified random sampling and were accompanied by participant observations, FGDs and KIIs. Secondary data were obtained from government documents. A convergent parallel mix method research design was adopted, which implied abductive reasoning with pragmatist research philosophy. The study found that despite poor facilities and structures at the local level, the client experienced extended agricultural service delivery. Local governments are undergoing a transition in harmonizing institutional and legal policies, as evidenced by the differences in service delivery and expertise. The study identified three areas of demand from people with local authorities viz; infrastructure for basic services, quality extension from professional experts, and prioritization of the agriculture sector. Based on the findings, an enhanced ASD framework at the local level is recommended to meet the quality service needs of diversified clients. In this regard, enhanced municipal capacity is crucial.

Author Biographies

Mahesh Jaishi, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science (IAAS)

Mahesh Jaishi is Assistant Professor and Extension Director and Research Scholar at the Department of Agriculture Extension and Rural Sociology at the Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science (IAAS) of Tribhuvan University, Nepal. He served more than fifteen years in development sectors with different capacity. Mr. Jaishi has been involved in research and consultancy work of federal agriculture extension system, decentralized agriculture service provisions.

Govinda Prasad Sharma, Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock Development (MoALD)

Govinda Prasad Sharma is working as Secretary at Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock Development. Dr. Sharma also worked as the Director General of Department of Agriculture, Secretary at the Ministry of Land Management, Agriculture and Cooperatives, Madhesh Province and Karnali Province. Dr. Sharma has over 27 years of experiences in the development of agriculture particularly policy formulation, planning, designing, implementation, project management, monitoring and evaluation. Dr Sharma holds PhD degree in agricultural and natural resource economics from University of Western Australia.

Purna Bahadur Nepali, Kathmandu University

Purna Bhadur Nepali is Associate Professor, and Program Director, Master of Public Policy and Management (MPPM), Kathmandu University School of Management (KU SOM). Dr. Nepali is Research Fellow (non-resident), Harvard Kennedy School and Hutchins Center, Harvard University, US where he is undertaking his research on Political Economy of Inclusive Agrarian Transformation: Comparative Analysis of Race-Caste of US and Nepal/South-Asia. Dr. Nepali is also a Fulbright Visiting Research Fellowship (2017-18) in Global Development and Sustainability at Heller School for Social Policy and Management, Brandeis University. His research are public and social policy, inclusive growth, social inclusion, and rural/agrarian issues.

Devendra Gauchan, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science (IAAS)

Devendra Gauchan is an Agriculture Economist having more than 25 years of postgraduate R&D experiences in national and international organizations with specific research interest and experiences of working in agricultural R&D, agricultural policy, agrobiodiversity, seed and food system, market and value chain and natural resource management. He is currently an Honorary Research Fellow at the Alliance of Bioversity International and International Centre for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT)- a CGIAR and also serves as an Adjunct Professor of Agricultural Economy

Ram Krishna Shrestha, Department of Agriculture (DoA)

Ram Krishna Shrestha currently serving as a joint secretary in the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock Development (MoALD). He is heading the Centre for Crop Development And Agro-Biodiversity Conservation (CCDABC), one of the central technical wings of MoALD with main responsibility to look after the federal policies and affairs related to crop and agro-biodiversity. His research interest includes food policy, food system transformation, climate change impact in agriculture, agrobiodiversity conservation, building sustainable and resilient agri. food system, agroecology and other nature positive farming, nutrition-sensitive agriculture, promotion of local and indigenous crops, agricultural extension, among others. He received doctoral degree in "social capital building in rural farming communities" from University of Queensland, Australia.

Krishna Prasad Timsina, Nepal Agricultural Research Council (NARC)

Krishna Prasad Timsina is currently a Senior Scientist and Chief at National Agricultural Policy Research Centre (NAPREC) under Nepal Agricultural Research Council (NARC), Lalitpur, Nepal. He has interest in different research areas such as farm business analysis, value chain, supply chain, agricultural policy analysis, behaviour economics, agribusiness and international trade analysis. He has past experience working on different international funding projects such as World Bank, CIMMYT, IRRI, and IFAD.

Huma Neupane, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science (IAAS)

Huma Neupane is an Assistant Professor at Institute of Agriculture and animal Science, Tribhuvan University (IAAS, TU) since more than 11 years. Currently she is working at a capacity of Director at Directorate of Research of Publication of IAAS. Before this she served as Scientist at Nepal Agricultural Research Council at Lumle Regional Agricultural Research Station, Kaski. She did her Ph.D at South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, China. Her interest in research areas includes production economics, livestock economics and agricultural marketing.


Acharya, K. K. (2018). Local governance restructuring in Nepal: From government to governmentality. Dhaulagiri journal of social and anthropology, 12, 37-49.

Adhikari, H.P. (2021). Status of local service delivery by the local government in Nepal. Nepalese Journal of management research, 1(1), 48-54.

AAF. (2022). Alliance for Agriculture and food Campaign for food. Retrieved from http:// wp-content/uploads/2022/12/Fact-sheet-of-Food-and-Agriculture.pdf

Bhattarai, D. R. (2022). Current Status of Outreach Agriculture Research in Nepal and New Strategies for Technology Verification and Dissemination. Proceedings of 14th outreach research workshop, 22-23 February, 2022, Khumltar, NARC publication no. NPSN:091/78/79

Bhattarai, P. C. (2015). Ethical leadership in Nepali technical and vocational education and training school. a convergent mix method study (Doctoral dissertation, Kathmandu University), Dhulikhel, Nepal

Bishwakarma, B.K. (2022). Federalization of Agriculture Sector: Issues and Challenges. Nepal Public Policy Review, 2, 339-382.

Blackmore, E., Vorley, B., Molenaar, J.W., Gorter, J., Heilbron, L., Simons, L., & Dallinger, J. (2015). Service delivery: How to design an effective service sector to drive sustainability in smallholder dominated sectors. White Paper 3. International finance Cooperation (IFC). Retrieved from

Chaudhary, D. (2018). Agriculture policy and rural development in Nepal. Research Nepal Journal of Development Studies, 1 (2):34-46.

Chaudhary, P. K & Pasa, R. B. (2015). Agriculture education for rural development in Nepal. Journal of training and development, 1 (1): 38-45.

Cresswell, J. W. (2009). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative and mix methods. New Delhi SAGE Publication.

Creswell, J.W. & Plano Clark, V.L. (2011). Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. 2nd Edition, Sage Publications, Los Angeles.

Dahal, H., M. Karki, T. Jacson & D. Pandey. (2020). New state structures and agriculture governance: A case of service delivery to local farmers in the eastern Gangetic Plains of Nepal. Agronomy, 10 (12): 1874,

Dhungel, D. N., Sapkota, M. Haug, R.M & Regmi, P.P. (2011). Decentralization in Nepal: Laws and practice. INBR report No. 2011:23. Norsk institutt, Retrieved from:

Gauchan, D. & Paudel, M.N. (2012). A proposal for restructuring of Nepal Agricultural Research Council in the new federal structural of Nepal. Proceedings of the 10th National Outreach Workshop, 27-28 February 2012, Lumle, Kaski Nepal.

Hagmann, J, Connolly, M., Ficarelli, P. & Ramaru, J. 2002. The service delivery framework: Understanding the development of service systems as a systemic change and negotiation process within and across three levels of demand and supply. Published on

Jaishi, M., Nepali, P.B., Sharma. G.P., Poudel, R.R., Gauchan, D. & Neupane, H. (2022 b). Research-Extension-Education-Farmer (AREEF) linkage in municipality level: Bridging the gap through the university-community engagement. Proceedings of Conference on Strengthening Linkage among Agriculture Research, Extension and Education for Effective Service Delivery in Federal Nepal, 17-18 June 2022, Kathmandu, Nepal

Jaishi, M., Sharma, G.P., Paudel, R.R., Bhattarai, D.R., Nepali, P.B., Gauchan D., Subedi, R. & Neupane, H. (2022 a). Agriculture Academic Institution (AAI): Bridging the gap between Agriculture Research Extension-Education (AREE) linkage with farming community level in Nepal. Proceedings of 14th National Outreach Research Workshop, 22-23 February 2022, Khumaltar, Lalitpur, Nepal.

Jaishi, M. Nepali, P.B. & Timsina, K.P. (2022 c). Reform strategy for effective agricultural extension delivery at the local level in Nepal. Policy Brief No. 4. CRISP India/AESA. Retrieved from

Keping, Y. (2018). Governance and Good Governance: A New Framework for Political Analysis. Fudan Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences. 11, 1–8.

Khanal, N.R., Nepal, P., Zhang, Y., Nepal, G., Paudel, B., Liu, L., & Rai, R. (2020). Policy provisions for agricultural development in Nepal: A review. Journal of cleaner production, 261.

Kharel, K.R. & Kharel, S. (2020). Analyze the effectiveness of resource mobilization of local government. Management Dynamics, 23(1),169-182.

Kyle, J. & Resnick, D. (2016). Nepal’s 2072 federal constitution implications for the governance of the agricultural sector. IFPRI discussion paper Washington, DC. Retrieved from

Kyle, J. & Resnick, D. (2018). Delivering more with less: Sub-national service provisions in low capacity states. Studies in comparative international development, 54,133-164. https://Doi10.1007/s12116-0189276-z

Legaspi, P.E. (2005). Overview of Governance Framework: A Working Draft on a Handbook on LGU-SPA Partnership. UP NCPAG.

MoAD. (2014). Agriculture Development Strategy (2015-2035). Ministry of Agriculture and Land Development, Kathmandu. Retrieved from

NARC. (2010). NARC’s Strategic Vision for Agricultural Research 2011-2030. Nepal Agricultural Research Council, Government of Nepal, Kathmandu.

Nepal Law Commission (2017). Local government Operation Act, 2017. New Baneshwor, Kathmandu Nepal.

NPC/UNDP. (2014). Nepal human development report, 2014. National Planning Commission and United Nation Development Program. Retrieved from

OECD. (2001). Engaging citizens in policy-making: Information, consultation and public consultation. PUMA Policy Brief, 10. Paris: OECD. Retrieved from

Poudyal, L. M. (2021). Policy making on Governance and Service Delivery in Nepal. [PRI Publication No. 024]. Kathmandu: Policy Research Institute. Retrieved from

Rijal, M.R., & Upreti, B.R. (2022). Reflecting on Public Policy Landscape in Nepal. [PRI Publication No. 044]. Kathmandu: Policy Research Institute.

Shah, A. (2005). Public service delivery. Washington: World Bank. Retrieved from

Shah, A. (2006). Local governance in developing countries: Public sector governance and accountability. Washington: World Bank.

Shah, A. (2007). The practice of fiscal federalism: Comparative perspective. Motereal and Kinsgston, London, Mc-Grill Queens University press.

Shahi, L. B., & Sthapit, A. (2022). Agriculture extension service delivery at local governments: A case of vegetable farmers of Rautahat district.(Unpublished Master’s APR) Faculty of Management and Law. Nepal Open University.

Shrestha, R. K. (2022). Nepalese agricultural extension at the crossroad: A call for revitalizing it for the transformation of agriculture sector. Thematic paper presented at Conference on Strengthening Linkage among Agriculture Research, Extension and Education for Effective Service Delivery in Federal Nepal in 17-18 June 2022, at Hotel Yellow Pagoda, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Subedi, S. L. (2014). Fiscal decentralization in Nepal: A municipal perspective. Adharsha Books, Kathmandu.

TAF. (2017). The diagnostic study of local governance in federal Nepal. The Asia Foundation/Australian government. The department of foreign affairs and trade. Retrieved from

Tamrakar, R. (2010). Impact of citizen charter in service delivery: A case of District Administration Office, Kathmandu. Retrived from

Timsina, K.P., Ghimire Y.N., Gauchan, D, Sanjel, P., Padhyoti, Y. & Bista, H. (2018). Restructuring Agricultural Research, Extension and Education in Nepal’s Federal System. Journal of Nepalese Horticulture, 12.

UNDP. (1997). Governance for sustainable development: A UNDP policy document. Governance for sustainable human development.United nation Development program. ISSN 9211260612

Uprety R., & Shivakoti, S. (2019). Extension policies and reforms in Nepal: an analysis of challenges, constraints, and policy options. In Babu S.C. and Joshi P.K. ( Eds). Agricultural Extension Reforms in South Asia, Academic Press,

Yalmanove, N. (2020). Public policy and policy making. XXIII International Conference Culture, Personality, Society in the Conditions of Digitization: Methodology and Experience of Empirical Research Conference. Retrieved from

Additional Files



How to Cite

Jaishi, M., Sharma, G. P., Nepali, P. B., Gauchan, D., Shrestha, R. K., Timsina, K. P., & Neupane, H. (2023). Government Framework for Agriculture Service Delivery at the Local Level in Nepal. Nepal Public Policy Review, 3(1), 95–117.