Agricultural and Natural Resources Policies in Nepal: A Review of Formulation and Implementation Processes and Issues


  • Ganesh R Joshi Former Secretary, Government of Nepal
  • Binaya Joshi Central Department of Environmental Science, Tribhuvan University, Nepal



agriculture, policy system, policy provision, reformation


The government of Nepal has made efforts to formulate and implement the agricultural sector policies since the 1960s. It has formulated dozens of policies and strategies in agriculture, forestry, agro-forestry, climate change, land use, poverty alleviation, irrigation, etc. Some of the policies seem to be targeted to specific groups and communities (poverty alleviation policy), to different sectors and commodities (forest, agriculture, poultry, coffee, etc.), and address international and national concerns and priorities (climate change policy, agrobiodiversity). This study aims to review the implementation of the policy provisions of major agricultural and natural resources policies, explore possible causes for it and suggest measures to effectively implement policy provisions in the future. We have reviewed seven agriculture policies for their provision and implementation and identified some common features and inadequacies. Our recommendations for policy reform include the practice of wider consideration, inter-policy coherence, sufficient institutional framework, periodic policy evaluation, improved accountability, and consideration for national Interest.

Author Biographies

Ganesh R Joshi, Former Secretary, Government of Nepal

Ganesh Raj Joshi obtained his PhD degree with specialization in Resource Economics and Policy from UPLB Philippines. He is a former Secretary, who worked in different ministries of Government of Nepal such as forests and soil conservation, environment, tourism, agriculture, and defense. Dr. Joshi Joshi has completed his Post-doctoral research as a Research fellow of Alexander von Humboldt Foundation Germany. He is a Visiting Professor (Environmental Science) in TU and Chair of the Center for Green Economy Develepment Nepal. Dr. Joshi contributed as a Lead Author to Options for Governance Chapter in IPBES Asia Paicific Regional Assessment on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services and as an Expert in the Scoping of Nexus (Food-Biodiversity-Energy-Water-Health) and Transformative Change Assessments. He has published over 3 dozen papers in the form of book, book chapters, journal article and seminar proceeding.

Binaya Joshi, Central Department of Environmental Science, Tribhuvan University, Nepal

Binaya Joshi completed his Master’s degree in Environmental Science from TU Nepal. He worked as a Senior Climate Change Officer in the Third National Communication Project and National Climate Change Support Program implemented by the Ministry of Forests and Environment. He has published half dozen papers in the form of journal article, book chapter and workshop proceeding. Mr. Joshi is pursuing PhD in Environmental Science from TU Nepal.


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Additional Files



How to Cite

Joshi, G. R., & Joshi, B. (2021). Agricultural and Natural Resources Policies in Nepal: A Review of Formulation and Implementation Processes and Issues. Nepal Public Policy Review, 1, 212–227.



Policy Commentaries