Assessment of Environmental Policies and Institutions for Effective Air Quality Management in Nepal


  • Raju Chauhan Department of Environmental Science, Patan Multiple Campus
  • Archana Shrestha Central Department of Environmental Science, Tribhuvan University



Air pollution, Clean air, Najam's 5C Framework, Policy Analysis, Environmental Policies


Air pollution is a serious environmental threat in major cities of Nepal. The major emission source of air pollutants is vehicular emission, resuspension of street dust litter during dry climatic conditions, black smoke plumes from brick kilns, and refuse burning. Effective plans and policies are required for the effective management and monitoring of air pollution. This study aims to review environmental policies and plans prevalent in Nepal and assess their effectiveness in controlling air pollution. The study is based on the literature review and a questionnaire survey using Najam's 5C framework for policy analysis. Although several national policies, plans, laws and standards have been formulated and international agreements have been ratified for the management of air pollution, separate policy dedicated to air pollution management has not been formulated in Nepal. According to Najam's framework, the content, context, and commitment of the overall policies, plans, and agreements for managing air quality in Nepal were assessed as effective. However, the capacity of the implementor, client support, and management coordination was found ineffective. This study recommends that a separate policy on air quality management is required, while the capacities of stakeholders and coordination mechanisms should be strengthened to improve the country's air quality.

Author Biographies

Raju Chauhan, Department of Environmental Science, Patan Multiple Campus

Mr. Raju Chauhan is an Assistant Professor of Environmental Science at the Department of Environmental Science, Patan Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University. He has taught courses in environmental policies and governance, pollution control, climate change, remote sensing and GIS in different Universities and colleges in Nepal as a visiting faculty. In addition, Mr. Chauhan is a former Environment Inspector, who worked with the Provincial and Local Governments of Nepal. His multidisciplinary research focuses on the environment and public policy, land-water climate interaction, environment assessments, cryosphere dynamics, environmental modelling, and geospatial applications.

Archana Shrestha, Central Department of Environmental Science, Tribhuvan University

Ms. Archana Shrestha is pursuing her Master's degree in Environmental Science from the Central Department of Environmental Science, Tribhuvan University. She has been working with non-governmental organizations and advocacy groups for environmental awareness, campaigns and advocacy, especially on air and water protection issues. Her research interest includes air pollution management, water conservation and environmental health.


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How to Cite

Chauhan, R., & Shrestha, A. (2022). Assessment of Environmental Policies and Institutions for Effective Air Quality Management in Nepal. Nepal Public Policy Review, 2, 181–207.



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