Understanding Policy Coherence and Interplay Governing Biodiversity Conservation and Associated Livelihood Practices in Karnali Province, Nepal


  • Badri Baral Nepal Environmental Research Institute (NERI), Kathmandu, Nepal
  • Bina Ghimire Central Department of Environmental Science
  • Dipak Raj Basnet Nature Conservation Initiative Nepal (NCI-Nepal)




wild life conservation, bio-diversity, policy coherence, Karnali Province, Biodiversity conservation, Policy gap


One of Nepal's most significant strategies for biodiversity protection is biodiversity conservation policy. Despite a significant paradigm shift in Nepalese policies and huge success in community-based conservation, conservation efficiency and proficiency remain low in Karnali. This pause results in ineffective policy implementation. Through a literature analysis, this study seeks to assess policy coherence and challenges within three levels of government conservation policies. The findings show that the components of central top-down non-participatory biodiversity conservation policies share consistent characteristics, such as the use of multiple policy tools, which can be either macro or micro, as well as short-term or long-term policies involving multiple actors at multiple levels. These policies often complement one another regarding the ownership, use, and management of natural resources, particularly forests. However, various findings have highlighted discrepancies, overlaps, and shortcomings in biodiversity protection and commonly shared resources. Despite global recognition as Important Bird Areas and the growing ecological concern of global and national conservation societies in Jajarkot, Jumla, Humla, Dolpa, and Kalikot, it is still not reflected fully in relevant federal policies. There is a lack of a specific policy agenda and responsive policies with federal, provincial, and local governments to promote its conservation. Hence, the paper's discussion considers active community participation as the applicable measure for integrated biodiversity conservation and development strategies with greater conservation impact.

Author Biographies

Badri Baral, Nepal Environmental Research Institute (NERI), Kathmandu, Nepal

Badri Baral is an MSc. Environmental Science Professional with specialization in Biodiversity Conservation and Wildlife research at the Nepal Environmental Research Institute (NERI) and Nature Conservation Initiative Nepal (NCI-Nepal). His areas of interest are wildlife research, community-based conservation, citizen science, and wildlife policy advocacy. His articles on the same areas are published in prominent national and international journals.

Bina Ghimire, Central Department of Environmental Science

Bina Ghimire is Environmental Science Professional, working particularly in Wildlife Ecology, Biodiversity Conservation and Climate change. She is currently working as Teaching Faculty and Research Associate in the Central Department of Environmental Science, Tribhuvan University (CDES-TU). Her research interests include Biodiversity conservation, illegal wildlife trade, climate change, ecotourism and bird ecology. She has also published scientific papers in scholarly journals related to the same themes.

Dipak Raj Basnet, Nature Conservation Initiative Nepal (NCI-Nepal)

Dipak Raj Basnet is Program officer at Nature Conservation Initiative Nepal (NCINepal) with over four years’ experience in geospatial analysis technologies combined with Geographic information systems and Remote Sensing (GIS and RS) on watershed management, agriculture plans, biodiversity conservation, and solid waste management. He is also affiliated with School of Environmental Science and Management, Pokhara University as lecturer, where he teaches ecology and biology to undergrad students. His area of interest and research focuses on broader aspects of environments including wildlife management and biodiversity conservation, geography, remote sensing, and climate change.


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Buffer Zone Regulation 1996

Constitution of Nepal 2015

Convention on Biodiversity, 1992

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, 1973 Environment Protection Act 2019

Environment Protection Regulations 2020

Federation, Province and Local Level (Coordination and Inter-relation) Act 2020

Forest Act 2019

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Guidelines for Promotion and Development of NTFP-based Enterprises 2005

Herbs and NTFP Development Policy 2004

Hitech Nursery Establishment and Operation Procedure 2075

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Karnali Province Forest Act 2022

Local Government Operation Act 2017

National Agro-Forests Policy 2019

National Forest Policy 2019

National Parks and Wildlife Conservation Act 1973

National Parks and Wildlife Conservation Rules 1974

Nepal Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan 2014–2020

Nursery management and operation Procedure 2022

Province Environmental Act 2077

Province Environmental Regulation 2077

Wildlife Damage Relief Support Directives 2013

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How to Cite

Baral, B., Ghimire, B., & Basnet, D. R. (2022). Understanding Policy Coherence and Interplay Governing Biodiversity Conservation and Associated Livelihood Practices in Karnali Province, Nepal. Nepal Public Policy Review, 2, 27–91. https://doi.org/10.3126/nppr.v2i1.48395



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